Turcisms in Serbian

Does anybody know what the etymologies of these words are; jelek, jastuk, dusek, butina, kobasica, ban, odaja, barjak, vampir, jogurt, komca. also; kasa, katran, kavez, kazan, kašika, komšija, kovrdžav, kula, kutija, kvrčkav, alat, pamuk, barut, boja, budala, dud, dućan, dželat, džep, kajsija, kapija, leš, majmun, makaze, marama, sanduk, sapun, sat, tavan, zejtin, čelik, čirak, čizma, čičak, čoban, para…i know it's a mouthful but it would be really helpful…thanks


These words are mostly Serbo-Slavic, although some of them (yogurt, barjak for instance) could possibly be of Turkic origin:

Turkish yelek (vest, waist, waistcoat); originally that word came from Serbo-Slavic obleka (cloth; Gon-bel-Gon basis; i.e. heblek => jeblek = jelek); cf. jagluk from (h)oglavak, a maiden scarf.

Serbian barjak is a borrowing from Tur. bayrak (flag); Turkmen baydak (here is interesting to mention that this word resembles to Turkic bay´r, bajrak /hill/ that might be a borrowing from Slavic breg /hill; Ger. Berg/. Of course, I cannot find any logical connection between Turkic bayrak (flag) and bajrak (hill).

(Tur. kafese) comes from the Gon-Bel basis; Serbo-Slavic okov (fetter), hvatanje (catch), gvožđe/gvozd (iron), uvezati (fasten); Serbian syntagma "baciti u gvožđa" (to shackle); cf. Serbian gvozd and Hephaistos Ἡφαιστος; Serb. gvožđe (iron) => zvezda (star), gvožđara (iron shop) => zvezdara (the place full of stars) and Gr. εσεσιδηρωτο (overlaid with iron), also Gr. σεσιδηρω-μενοι; Lat. sidereus starry).

Turkish kaşık (spoon) is not Turkish inherited word although even Vasmer understood the Slavic word 'kašik/a' (Russ. kašik) as a Turkic loanword. Serbo-Slavic kašika (spoon) is clearly related to the verb 'kvašenje' (wetting, soaking) and to the Serbo-Slavic word 'kaša' (soup; from kvašenica). It is the reason why we have the forms kašika and kovšika (Russ. kovšik) as Slavic spoon).

Turkish yastık (Turkmen ÿassyk) could be compared to OE hassuc (coarse grass); maybe it is related to English husk (Serb. ljuska). Nevertheless, there is a more reliable possibility that Serbian jastuk (pillow) is derived from the verb uzdignuti (lift up) or 'istaknuti' (jut, prominent, protrude) and we all know that jastuk (pillow) is a part of bed that is bulged out from the bed surface.

The Russian word poduška/poduška (pillow) explains the Serbo-Slavic word dušek (mattress), because poduška is derived from Serbo-Salvic podloga (substratum, pillow, background, backing, bedding, basis, floor, bottom), Serb. podloška (pillow, groundwork, pad, bed); it means that 'dušek' (mattress) is an apheresis of the Serb-Slavic word 'po-dloška' (bed). Turkish döşek (bed, mattress) is a clear-cut borrowing from Serbo-Slavic.

Butina (thigh) is also related to above-mentioned Serbo-Salvic podloga (base); the same compund word from which English foot and leg were derived; cf. Ice. fótleggur.

Kobasica appeared be related to Sanskrit gopas (shepherd), but it came from the above-mentioned Serbian okov (fetter) and verbs okivati (shackle, band) and očuvati (keep, preserve, beware). Logically, nothing can be preserved if it is not "fettered" or "fastned" or put into a shackles (cage); therefrom, kobasica is a food that can be preserved from decaying for a long period (shepherd's food); cf. Serbian čoban (shepherd), čuvanje (keeping), okivanje (shackling).

Turkish oda (room; Turkmen otag) is probably related to Serbian odaja (room); but Serbian odaja is just one of the forms of the words as odeljenje (section, department; cf. Ger. Teil, Eng. deal) or odeljak (Ger. Abteil); from the Serbo-Slavic deliti (devide, separate).

Vampir (vampire) is the only word that allegedly was borrowed from Serbian although that word seems to be more related to Latin vapor (steam); yes, it could also come from Serbo-Slavic upariti (to steam; para steam); cf. Old Russian upirь (vampire); here it would be interesting to mention that English spirit (from Lat. spiritus soul) sounds almost the same as Serbian ispariti (steam out) and ispiriti (to exhale, expire!!).

Serbian and Turkish pamuk is a loanword from Greek βαμβακιον (cotton; βαμβάκι); akin to Persian pambe (cotton);

Serbian kutija (box) is related to Serbian words kut (ugao), ćošak (ugao), kocka (cube; cf. Serb. ćoškast = kockast /cubelike/), kuća (house);

Leš (corpse) is probably related to Serbian verb 'ležati' (lie down); cf. Serb. syntagma "leži mrtav" (he lies dead);

Kovrdža (curl) comes from kvrga (bump, nub), kvržica (a small nub), kurgan; cf. Serb. kvrgast knotty (from krug /circle/); opposite to kvrga is jaruga/jarak (ditch, furrow, harrow, Lat. corrugo -are);

Čelik (steel; kako se kalio čelik; Ostrovsky's novel "How the Steel Was Tempered"); from Serbo-Slavic kaliti (to steel; Russ. za-kalяю); Czech ocel (steel); Serb. očeličiti (to steel, harden); okaliti/ prekaliti (harden, steel);

Budala (fool); metathesis from Serbian poludeti (mad, madden, craze), bludeti (wanton); bludeo – poludeo – budala; hence the Serbian adverb podlo (meanly); podlost (baseness);

Kapija (gate) is from Serbian poklopac (cover, lid), oklapati, za- klapati (to cover, close); Serb. "za-klopi kapiju" (close the gate; oklop /shell/ => klapija => kapija);

Sapun (soap); related to Serbian 'sipanje' (pour) and za-peniti (to foam); cf. Serb. sapunati (to soap; za-peniti <=> sa-punati);

Barut (gunpowder); from Serbo-Slavic prah/porah (dust; Russ. poroh); from Serb. prsnuti (burst, break, explode, spray; Lat. aspergo spray); cf. Serb. brašno (flour; Ukr. borošno), Russ. porošok; Arabic barud; Greek πυρίτιδα, μπαρούτι; Aramaic b@rwt, ˁaprā dust; Akkadian eperu (dust; cf. Serbian pra' dust, gunpowder). According to Xurbelanum HSF formula the basis of all the above words is Bel-Hor-Gon (Latin pulvereus!)…

Džep (pocket; Arabic jaib); also gajba (cage); cf. Serb. kavez; Ita. gabbia (cage); from the Gon-Bel basis, kibla, kabal, kabao, kofa; from Serbian kupilo (bucket, cupel), okupljati (to gather together); English gap (?)

Sat (Turkish saat; Turkmen sagat; Hebrew sha`ah /hour/)… Aramaic šāˁtā (moment of time) could be compared to the Serbian adverb 'sada' (now); Serb. vreme sadašnje (present tense); Russ. segodnя/ sevodnya (today); South-Serbian sekogaš/sekogaš (ever, forever); svaki all, ever; zauvek forever; Latin secunda… I hope, now you are able to understand that the word sat (hour) is a clear.cut IE word that cannot be explain neither in Turkish nor Semitic languages.

Dželat (executioner; Turkish cellat); cf. gallows; OE galga is related to Serbian kolac (pole; cf. Turkish golcü executioner); In this case, dželat (executioner) is the Turkish loanword in Serbian but this word originally started from Serbian 'kolac' (pole, pale). We all know that impaling was the most favorite punishment in Dark Ages. Serb. kolac (pole) => Tur. golcü (executioner) => cellat/dželat (executioner).

Turkish çiçek (flower) is just another example of Serbian loanwords in Turkish. Namely, čičak (in Serbian) doesn't mean flower but "thistle" and it is related to IE *keg- (hook; Serb. kuka) and other Serbian words like kačiti (attach, to hook), čačkanje (pick; from kačkanje, kačenje hook, hinge), čačkalica (toothpick).

Para (money; Serb. pare) is known in Persian (pârce piece, segment) but it is also a common IE word (Eng. parcel, portion; Serb. parče piece; Lat. pars, partis).

Čizma (boot) is the Hungarian word (csizma); but Turkish bot, potin (boot) is borrowed from Serbian botinke/patike/opanke (from Serb. verb obuti /to shoe/, obući/oblačiti clothe; Serb. obuća shoes, obleka cloth).

Turkish/Arabic tavan (ceiling) and Serbian tavan (attic, loft) are very imteresting words because they seem to be related to Serbian adjective 'tavno/tavan' (dark); Aramaic ṭellālā (shade, ceiling; Arabic zallal dark) might be in connection with Serbian/Turkish/Arabic tavan. Serbo- Slavic tamno (Russ. temnый/temniy; Czech temný, tma, tajemný, tmavý, temno; Serb. tmina darkness, po-tamnilo darkened) is derived from Gon- Bel-Gon basis similar to the other Serbian words as dubina (deepness), tamnica/tavnica (prison, jail). In case of the Serbian words tavan/ taman (dark) the b=>m sound change is clearly visible. Serbian tavan (loft) and tavanica (ceiling) are clearly related to Serbian tavnica/ tamnica (prison, jail). In reality, ancient man realized that as you go deeper (Serbian dubina) under the ground the environment is getting more and more dark (Serb. tavno/tamno); it means that prison is a dark space as well as it is the space above the ceiling – Serb. tavan (loft, attic).
Finally, if we compare English ceiling and cellar/cell (German Keller basement; from Latin celare con-cealing, covering, hiding) we will be able to understand the logic of the development of Serbo-Slavic words tavan (loft), tavanica, tavnica (ceiling), tavnica/tamnica (prison) and tavan/taman (dark; tmina darkness).

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