Smoke Fuming out of Candle

Cresset (icon lamp, censer) is called kandilo (candle) in Serbian (Czech kandela censer; Slovene kadilec smoker, kadilnica censer, kadilo incense). On the other hand, the similar word in Czech (kadidlo) means incense. All seems to be tumbled here, because incense is tamjan in Serbian [obviously related to Slavic dim (smoke)]. In Russian, incense is fimiam/fimiam, again related to Slavic dim (Russ. dыm/dim smoke, tuman/tuman fog, mist; d => f sound change), but, also very close to Latin fumo -are (to smoke), fumus, -i, -um (smoke).

In addition, there are the Serbian verbs 'kaditi' and 'čaditi' (both with the meaning "to smoke"), possibly derived from the noun kandilo (censer), and Slovene kajenje (smoking, smoke), a variant of kaditi (to smoke, fume). At the same time, there is Serbian čađ (soot) and the verb čaditi (to soot; Slovak za-čadiť to soot). This "čaditi", i.e. "za-čaditi" (to fill a space with soot) might be related to Serbian "za-gaditi" (to polute) and "okužiti" (taint, contaminate). Hence, it seems, there are the werbs in Serbian (Slovenian) with the opposite meanings, first "kaditi" (to clear the space/room with the holy incense/smoke, dimljenje /smoking/ => tamjan /incense/) and on the other side, "gaditi" (abhor, make something loathsome), ogaditi, okužiti, za-gaditi (make impure, contaminate; Slovene okužiti taint; cf. Serbo-Slovene 'kuga' plague, pestilence).

Now we can understand the history of the Serbian word kazna (punishment; from ogađeno/okuženo tainted, contaminated; Slovene kazen punishment; kaznovati punish; Russ. nakazatь/na-kazat; cf. Dostoyevsky's novel: Prestuplenie i nakazanie/Prestuplyenie i na-kazanyiye; Crime and Punishment).

It seems that all the above words related to censer (kandilo; Serb. kandisati to smell) appeared from the reduplicated Gon ur-syllable (Gon-Gon; cf. Serbian gonjenje chasing. Essentially, Serbian kazna (punishment) is the same as gonjenje (persecution, pursuit, prosecution or chase; cf. Russ. gonenie; Cz. honit chase; Slovene ganjati chase). The opposite word to Serb. goniti is the verb 'kidnuti' (break out, run away; 'kidanje' breaking; 'ukidanje' abolishment; Russ. vыhod), obviously related to other words as hod (walk), ići (go, walking; Russ. hoditь, Cz. chodit).

If the above analisis is correct, what are we going to do with the PIE root *kand- (glow, shine)? It appears to be logical that kandilo (candle, censer) originated from the Slavic word kađenje/čađenje (fuming; Slovene kadilnica = Serb. kandilica/kadionica). We should not exclude a possibility that Serbian kandilo (kandilica) is directly related to Slavic dim (smoke, dimljenje smoking). Namly, kandilo could be dimilo (a smoke device, smoke machine); za-dimljeno, na-dimljeno (smoked). The both Serbian prepositions za- and na- are derived from the Gon ur-syllable and they have almost the same role in Serbian as the con- (together, with) preposition has in Latin. Maybe, the Serbian place name Gadimlje is a solution of this "smoke-fumigating" enigma:

Had the Serbian kandilo really been derived from "h/odimljen" (smoked) it would then have implied that the Serbian adjective 'škodljiv' (harmful; from zgadljiv abominable, probably from z-ga-dimljiv) is also related to Slavic dim (smoke); as we see, English odious is very close to Serbian gadan (odious; OE hatian, hate, Goth. hatjan). Of course, it is additionally confusing to have two (or even more) possible sources of the word kandilo /candle/) and all of them being quite logical and acceptable. In order to try to solve this problem, we must know the history of the Slavic words as dim, tamno and dubina.

In addition, if we are able to grasp that Slavic words dubina (deepness; Russ, glubina), debljina (fatness), tama (darkness) and dim (smoke) are all derived from Gon-Bel-Gon ur-basis (Slavic oblak cloud, Lithuanian debesis) we will be able to understand the history of other words, in different IE languages, which are also derived from the above-mentioned Gon-Bel-Gon basis. For instance, English clew (OE cleowen) is genetically related to Serbian kluvak (ball of thread or yarn); i.e. to klupko or klobuk (a compact spherical mass); hence Latin globus and Serb. lopta (ball; from k-lopta). The Serbian word klobuk has almost the same meaning as Slavic oblak (cloud; from G(n)-Oblak => Gobluk => Klobuk). When clouds cover the sun the less light is reaching the Earth surfice and it is getting darker (Serb. tamnjenje from tamljenje/hanbljenje; i.e. from h/oblaganje or accumulation; Serb. tamnjenje is in fact "fattening of the clouds"(Serb. debljanje oblaka); Lith. debesis). Now, I hope, we are able to realize why the Serbian words oblak (cloud), debljanje (fattening), tamljenje, tama (dark, darkness) and dim (smoke) are closely related.

Russian kurilьnica/kurilynica (censer; also kadilьnica) is clearly related to the Slavic verb goreti (burn; Russ. goretь/garyetь; Gr. θερμός; cf. Lat. garaiņi vapor, izgarot vaporize; Serb. izgoreti burn down; Cz. vy-hořívání burnup). The above-mentioned Russian kurilynica (censer) is the same as the Serbian gorionik or gorionica (combustion chamber). If we compare the Serbian word gorivo (fuel; Russ. gorюčee) and the above Russian kurilynica and Serbian gorionica we will see an interesting reduction inside the primeval BL cluster; i.e. the closest form to the Hor-Bel ur-basis (from which the above Russian and Serbian words are derived) have the Serbian words gorljiv (combustive; Cz. hořlavý) and garavljenje (sooting).

Explore posts in the same categories: Comparative Linguistics

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