Harač


Turkish word haraççı, during the Ottoman Empire, meant "tax paid by non-Moslems". The same word exist in Persian ( خراج kharaj tax, a tribute, toll). There are the Persian words شریتا sharītā (king) and شاهوار shāhwār (noble, royal) as well as Sharukeen (Sargon) that can be related to Latin Caesar -aris (Ger. Keiser, Russ. carь). On the other hand, there is the Persian transitive verb آراستن (arastan) with the meaning 'to arrange, to put in order, to tidy, decorate', which is obviously a cognate to English arrange and Serbian urediti (arrange; uređenje 'system, regime, order') and ukrasiti (to decorate).

Comparing Turkish haraç (racketeering, extortion) to the Serbian word harati (plunder, ravage) we can come to the conclusion that these two words are closely related.

Finally, Serbian word carina (toll, tax) seems to be derived from the noun car (tsar, emperor) – the tax that must be paid to the emperor. My question is: is it possible that the words for kings like Lat. rex, Slavic kralj, Russ. tsar, Pers. Sharukeen were all derived from the same ur-basis or the same agglutinated proto IE form *hor-gon?

I sure didn't have to wait long for you to again try to derive a non-IE word from Serbian.

The English name "Sargon" has nothing whatsoever to do with IE "shah"; it is from Akkadian sharru 'king'

Turkish xxx is "closely related" to Serbian yyy. Was it just yeterday
that you claimed I was making up the fact that you frequently assign
Serbian etymologies to non-IE words?

Peter Daniels

But you missed one thing: Persian kharaj (tax, a tribute, toll). Turkish, if you didn't know, borrowed a great number of words from Persian. In addition, Persian kharaj is most probably related to Serbian krađa (theft, stealing; Russ. kraža, ukradennыe veщi; Pol. kradzież, Cz. krádež; OCSl kražda)
We still have one IE language in that area – Kurdish. Encyclopedia Britannica supposed that Sargon (Sharukeen) was the "father" of the Russian word tsar. There are other theories too, but none of them can be taken as definitive and unquestionable.

What exactly is it that you think makes "arrange" an "obvious" cognate of "arastan",assuming that it is one at all? Do you have any idea where "arrange" came from?

Harlan Messinger

First, Serb. u-rediti (arrange; Cz. za-řídit; po-řádat; Russ. privoditь v po-rяdok; also Serb. noun uređenje 'system, regime'; Cz. z- řízení 'regime') is a clear cognate to English arrange and organize. Also, English raw is a cognate to Serbian red (raw, line; Cz. řádek; rząd; Russ. rяd), because all these words are derived from PIE *hreig- (Gmc. *hreig-vo; Ger. Reihe from 'reig', OHG rihan) – ultimately from *hor-gon (Gmc. hring, Slav. krug, Lat. circus; Gr. κρίκος/κίρκος). Greek ἄριστος (best, most useful, noblest) is a cognat to Serb. koristan (useful; cf. gr. ἀρωγός useful, beneficial) as well as Serb. krasan 'fine, beautiful, gorgeous' (Russ. pre-krasnый, Cz. krásný); and ukrasiti 'decorate' (Russ. ukrašatь; Cz. při-krášlit is related to both Pers. arastan and Gr. ἄριστος. Persian 'circle' is جرگه (jarga) or جرگه (jargeh).

If the word for "king" is from semitic languages (weren't they organized into what we would call kingdoms today way before IE people) then it is only an assumption that PIE had a word for king. Perhaps when the semitic "king" came to the IE world, IE dialects we can recognize now were already in existence.

No, it cannot be from Semitic, but it is possible that Semitic and IE used the same initial word to describe a circle or a round object [cf. Aram. qrqws (circle, ring); Arab. daira (circle), Akk. sâru (rotate, turn, to circle), sûrtu (circle)]. It could be interesting to mention that Turks borrowed Arabic daira (circle) and according to that word they named a musical instrument – tambourine (daire; because of its round shape; lit. circle), which later was spread across the North Africa (Arab. bendeir), Europe (Serb. daire, Spanish pandero – via Arabic) and Asia (Azerb. doire, Pers. daire).

Steingass in his persian dictionary classsifies xara:j as arabic. I'll
look up some other sources to get a more definite answer.

Yusuf B Gursey

Yes, I know; it is a wide spread opinion. Nevertheless, there is a Sanskrit word kara (royal revenue , toll , tax , tribute) and this word is recorded in Mahâbhârata; so it is hardly possible that it was borrowed from Arabic a few hundreds years B. C. Also, Sanskrit hara means 'taking away , carrying off , removing , destroying; destroyer' and it matches to Serbian harati 'destroy'.

And the Akkadian sharru 'king' is derived from Magdalenian ShA RAG, ruler ShA ruler RAG. RAG originally meant the line of head and back of an animal in cave art, the first line drawn by the Paleolithic artists according to Leroi Gourhan, strongly evocative of the whole animal. Greek rakhos 'back, mountain ridge', German Rücken 'back' Bergrücken 'mountain ridge' ragen 'to loom, tower', German recht 'right' and Recht 'law', English right, Latin rex 'king' regina 'queen', Sanskrit raj 'king' – kings represent what is right, their word is the law, they tower above the society and appear with a straight back in public, their back enforced and prolonged by a throne, their stature heightened by a crown.

Franz Gnaedinger

And the things are right if they are standing in a row (Ger. Reihe; Serb. red). Of course, Ger. Rücken is derived from the above mentioned *hor-gon (hring, circle) and its meaning is the same as Serbian grba/ grbina/hrbat (hump, back; Russ. hrebet; Cz. hřbet; related to Lat. curvo and cervix 'back of the neck'; cf. Serb. krivo 'curved, not right'). In fact, you can see that Rücken came from OE hrycg, or more precise, from OHG hrukki, which sounded very similar (almost the same) to Slavic krug 'circle'. There is a Serbian syntagm 'nositi krkače', with the meaning "to carry something/someone on the back", and it shows that Serb. krkača (back) is equal to German Rücken.

I forgot to say that Greek ῥᾰχις (spine) is also derived from the
"circle" (Gr. κρίκος, Lat. circus).

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