Arabic jabal


Arabic jabal (mountain) comes from the Semitic gbl root; maybe the same one from which the IE words ample, oval, alp, cobble etc. are derived?; PIE and Proto-Slav. *h/obl- (round, swelling, mound, knob, tomb). Also, Semitic *gbl: Phoen. pl. gubulim 'territory, boundary', Ugaritic /gbl/ 'mountain, rock', Mehri gǝbēl 'mountain'.

The same meanings with the similar sounding words could be found in Slavic languages: Serb. obala 'coast, boundary', oblast 'territory', plany/planina 'mountain'; OSl. oblastь; also humka 'mound, grave' (from *humul; gomila 'heap'; Lat. cumulus/tumulus: maybe Arab. jumla 'complete, all together').

On the other hand, there are Semitic /gbl/ words with the meaning 'knead, mix, shape'; Arab. ğbl 'form, create'; cf. Serb. oblik 'form'; Russ. oblik; oblati 'shape', oblikovati 'form, create', zaobliti/ uobliti 'make round', oblić 'abrader';

Interesting, Hebrew דבלה dǝbēlāh (round), from the Semitic /dbl/ root (round, lump, forming the balls, fig cake); גבע geba 'hill', גביע gĕbiya` 'cup, bowl'.

Also כף (hollow), Arab. kahf (cave) seems to be related to Akkadian huppu 'cave', from huballu 'hollow' (cf. Latin cubile 'bed, lair, den, nest; Russ. uglublenie; Pol. wgłębienie 'hollow'; Serb. duplja 'hollow'; šupljina 'hollow, cavity'). We can also see that English hollow fits well to the above "pattern" (from *hoblo- 'round, oval, ball').

There is no coincidence when the IE languages (especially those in Europe, compiled Albanian excluded) are to be considered. Only problem is are we able to understand certain relations or not. For instance, Latv. ābols (apple; Lith. obelis, obuolys) is related to Slavic *hablъko (Russ. яbloko; Cz. jablko; Serb. jabuka), and all these words point to the round form of apple. The similar situation is with pear in Slavic: hruša; Russ. gruša, Serb. kruška; all from krug 'circle', kružno 'circular, round'. The Lithuanian vocabulary follows Slavic 'circular' when pear (Lith. kriaušė) is in question, although Lituanian 'circle' is a little bit "disguised" (Lith. skridinys, skrieti, skritulys; Lat. riņķis 'circle'; cf. OE hring; Gr. κρικος/ κιρκος, Lat. circus). As far as I know, there is no Latvian word for pear that is linked to circular/round form (Latv. bumbieris 'pear'; similar to Serb. bumbar 'bumblebee' and verb bubriti 'swell'; cf. bubreg 'kidney').

Vasmer believed that Slavic bubreg (Russ.-ChSl. bubrѣgъ) was a loanword from Turkish böbrek (Azerb. böiräk 'kidney'), but I think that he got it wrong.

There is the Serbian noun burag 'venter animalis, paunch, rumen, tripe'. Russian brюho (Cz. břich, břicho) 'belly, belly, paunch', which is derived from the proto-form *horb- (Slav. torba 'bag', trbuh 'belly'; i.e. trbuh => briuh). Russian brüxo 'belly' is the source of Serb. burag 'tripe, rumen, paunch'. As you can see, even the English word tripe may be related to trbuh 'belly' and torba (bag?; cf. Serb. drob 'tripe'. Although the noun tripe might be related to Arabic therb 'suet' (via Sp. tripa), its IE origin is absolutely unquestionable.

I have mentioned burag 'paunch' just to show how difficult is to understand were Old Turkish bögür 'kidney' is coming from. For instance, Turkish bögür means 'flank, side' and appears to be a cognate of Serbian bok 'flank'. It seems as if this Turkish word is a metathesized form of böbrek (böbrek => börek => bögür, albeit it doesn't actually sound as a possible sequence of events.

Slavic bubreg is clearly related to the verb bubriti (Serb. bub-renje 'swelling') from the root *bubl- (Cz. bublina 'balloon, bubble', Serb. pupak 'navel', pupiti 'tu bud, sprout', bubulja 'pimple', buba 'bug, lady bird, beetle'); Slavic burljanje 'stirring' (from *bul-hregn-, similar to vrenje 'ebullience' and varenje 'digestion') is probable related tu bubrenje (metathesis: bubrenje <= bub/l/renje => bu/b/l- ranje => bul-ranje => burljanje).

Stefan Mladenov, for instance, concluded that torba 'bag' is derived from the common Aryan-Altaic root *der. Bruckner says that torba is a cognate of trbuh. On the other hand, Skok believes that trbuh is related to Russian brjucho, Polish brzuch and Czech břicho.

If brjucho, trbuh and torba were related (and they surely are), according to your logic, it would necessarily imply that brjucho is also a Turkish loanword, would it not? Instead, Vasmer compares brjucho with German Brust?

And what are we going to do with Slavic trup (Russ. trup, Cz. trup, Serb. trup) 'trunk, body, torso'? Can you not see that trup and trbuh 'belly' are cognates? In addition, you can also see that trunk has the same meanings as Slavic trup (trunk 'baggage' = torba 'bag', trup 'body' = trunk 'body'; trup 'torso' = trunk 'torso').

Here it is, for instance, what Bugge said about Slavic *pъrsi (OSl. prьsь) and Germanic *brustz (Ger. Brust). Have you ever read the other linguists who compared brust to Slavic *bъrdo 'hill, elevation'?

And the possible metathesis of *t(e)rbuh => brjuxo may look like this: terbuho => tebruho => bruho (aphæresis).

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